TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES

#SHORT NOTES NEET PREPARATION (Chapter 1) -TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES

TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES

Classification = not a single step process but involves hierarchy of steps (Each step represents a rank or category)

Categorypart of overall taxonomic arrangement = taxonomic category

All categories together constitute = taxonomic hierarchy

Each category referred to unit of classification (rank is commonly known as taxon pl: taxa)

ORDER OF TAXONOMY = GROUPS – CATEGORY – RANK (EACH RANK OR TAXONUNIT OF CLASSIFICATION)

Common Category – Kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus and species

SPECIES

Group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities = Species

Distinguish between one species from the other closely related species based on distinct morphological differences

Example: Mangifera indica, Solanum tuberosum (potato) and Panthera leo (lion). Indica, tuberosum and leo = represent specific epithets,

First words Mangifera, Solanum and Panthera = genera (represent another higher level of taxon or category)

Each genus = have one or more than one specific epithets represent different organisms (morphological similarities)

Example: Panthera has another specific epithet = tigris

Solanum includes species like nigrum and melongena

GENUS

Genus – comprises a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera

Genera – aggregates of closely related species

For example, potato and brinjal = two different species but belong to the genus Solanum

Panthera leo (Lion), P.pardus (leopard) and P.tigris (tiger) – several common features (all species of the genus Panthera). This genus Panthera is differed from another genus Felis which include cats

FAMILY

The next category (Family) – has a group of related genera (with still less number of similarities as compared to genus and species)

Families = characterized on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species

For Example, plants = three different genera Solanum, Petunia and Datura are placed in the family Solanaceae

Animals = Genus Panthera (lion, tiger, leopard) and genus Felis (cats) in the family Felidae. Features of cat and dog = have some similarities and some differences as well. They are separated into two different families (Felidae and Canidae)

ORDER

Species, genus and families = number of similar characters. Order and other higher taxonomic categories are identified based on aggregates of characters.

Order is the assemblage of families which exhibit a few similar characters; plant families like Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae = included in the order Polymoniales (based on the floral characters)

Animal order Carnivora = includes families like Felidae and Canidae

CLASS

Class = category includes related orders. For example, Class Mammalia contains order Primata (comprising monkey, gorilla and gibbon) and order Carnivora (tiger, cat and dog)

PHYLUM

Next higher category Phylum Chordata includes animals (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds along with mammals). All have common features (Presence of notochord and dorsal hollow neural system)

In plants, classes with a few similar characters are assigned to a higher category called Division

KINGDOM

All animals belonging to various phyla = assigned to the highest category called Kingdom (Animalia)

Kingdom Plantae comprises all plants from various divisions.

Higher from species to kingdom (number of common characteristics (decreasing), lower the taxa (more common characteristics share).

Higher the category = greater difficulty in determining relationship to other taxa at the same level

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