ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES – James Clerk Maxwell, DISPLACEMENT CURRENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, Sources of electromagnetic waves, Nature of electromagnetic waves, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 – 1894), Microwaves and Microwave oven (NCERT 12TH PHYSICS)
An electric current produces magnetic field and that two current-carrying wires exert a magnetic force on each other. A magnetic field changing with time gives rise to an electric field. Is the converse also true? Does an electric field changing with time give rise to a magnetic field? James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), argued that this was indeed the case – not only an electric current but also a time-varying electric field generates magnetic field. While applying the Ampere’s circuital law to find magnetic field at a point outside a capacitor connected to a time-varying current, Maxwell noticed an inconsistency in the Ampere’s circuital law. He suggested the existence of an additional current, called by him, the displacement current to remove this inconsistency.
Maxwell formulated a set of equations involving electric and magnetic fields, and their sources, the charge and current densities. These equations are known as Maxwell’s equations. Together with the Lorentz force formula, they mathematically express all the basic laws of electromagnetism.
The most important prediction to emerge from Maxwell’s equations is the existence of electromagnetic waves, which are (coupled) time varying electric and magnetic fields that propagate in space. The speed of the waves, according to these equations, turned out to be very close to the speed of light( 3 ×108 m/s), obtained from optical measurements. This led to the remarkable conclusion that light is an electromagnetic wave. Maxwell’s work thus unified the domain of electricity, magnetism and light. Hertz, in 1885, experimentally demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves. Its technological use by Marconi and others led in due course to the revolution in communication that we are witnessing today.
Then we present a descriptive account of electromagnetic waves. The broad spectrum of electromagnetic waves, stretching from g rays (wavelength ~10–12 m) to long radio waves (wavelength ~106 m) is described. How the electromagnetic waves are sent and received for communication.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879)
Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, was among the greatest physicists of the nineteenth century. He derived the thermal velocity distribution of molecules in a gas and was among the first to obtain reliable estimates of molecular parameters from measurable quantities like viscosity, etc. Maxwell’s greatest acheivement was the unification of the laws of electricity and magnetism (discovered by Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere and Faraday) into a consistent set of equations now called Maxwell’s equations.
From these he arrived at the most important conclusion that light is an electromagnetic wave. Interestingly, Maxwell did not agree with the idea (strongly suggested by the Faraday’s laws of electrolysis) that electricity was particulate in nature.
An electrical current produces a magnetic field around it. Maxwell showed that for logical consistency, a changing electric field must also produce a magnetic field. This effect is of great importance because it explains the existence of radio waves, gamma rays and visible light, as well as all other forms of electromagnetic waves.
Sources of electromagnetic waves
How are electromagnetic waves produced? Neither stationary charges nor charges in uniform motion (steady currents) can be sources of electromagnetic waves. The former produces only electrostatic fields, while the latter produces magnetic fields that, however, do not vary with time.
It is an important result of Maxwell’s theory that accelerated charges radiate electromagnetic waves. The proof of this basic result is beyond the scope of this book, but we can accept it on the basis of rough, qualitative reasoning. Consider a charge oscillating with some frequency. (An oscillating charge is an example of accelerating charge.) This produces an oscillating electric field in space, which produces an oscillating magnetic field, which in turn, is a source of oscillating electric field, and so on. The oscillating electric and magnetic fields thus regenerate each other, so to speak, as the wave propagates through the space.
The frequency of the electromagnetic wave naturally equals the frequency of oscillation of the charge. The energy associated with the propagating wave comes at the expense of the energy of the source – the accelerated charge.
From the preceding discussion, it might appear easy to test the prediction that light is an electromagnetic wave. We might think that all we needed to do was to set up an ac circuit in which the current oscillate at the frequency of visible light, say, yellow light. But, alas, that is not possible. The frequency of yellow light is about 6 × 1014 Hz, while the frequency that we get even with modern electronic circuits is hardly about 1011 Hz. This is why the experimental demonstration of electromagnetic wave had to come in the low frequency region (the radio wave region), as in the Hertz’s experiment (1887).
Hertz’s successful experimental test of Maxwell’s theory created a sensation and sparked off other important works in this field. Two important achievements in this connection deserve mention. Seven years after Hertz, Jagdish Chandra Bose, working at Calcutta (now Kolkata), succeeded In producing and observing electromagnetic waves of much shorter wavelength (25 mm to 5 mm). His experiment, like that of Hertz’s, was confined to the laboratory. At around the same time, Guglielmo Marconi in Italy followed Hertz’s work and succeeded in transmitting electromagnetic waves over distances of many kilometres. Marconi’s experiment marks the beginning of the field of communication using electromagnetic waves.
Nature of electromagnetic waves
It can be shown from Maxwell’s equations that electric and magnetic fields in an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to each other, and to the direction of propagation. It appears reasonable, say from our discussion of the displacement current. The electric field inside the plates of the capacitor is directed perpendicular to the plates. The magnetic field this gives rise to via the displacement current is along the perimeter of a circle parallel to the capacitor plates. So B and E are perpendicular in this case. This is a general feature.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 – 1894)
German physicist who was the first to broadcast and receive radio waves. He produced electromagnetic waves, sent them through space, and measured their wavelength and speed. He showed that the nature of their vibration, reflection and refraction was the same as that of light and heat waves, establishing their identity for the first time. He also pioneered research on discharge of electricity through gases, and discovered the photoelectric effect.
At the time Maxwell predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves, the only familiar electromagnetic waves were the visible light waves. The existence of ultraviolet and infrared waves was barely established. By the end of the nineteenth century, X-rays and gamma rays had also been discovered. We now know that, electromagnetic waves include visible light waves, X-rays, gamma rays, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet and infrared waves. The classification of em waves according to frequency is the electromagnetic spectrum. There is no sharp division between one kind of wave and the next. The classification is based roughly on how the waves are produced and/or detected.
Radio waves are produced by the accelerated motion of charges in conducting wires. They are used in radio and television communication systems. They are generally in the frequency range from 500 kHz to about 1000 MHz. The AM (amplitude modulated) band is from 530 kHz to 1710 kHz. Higher frequencies upto 54 MHz are used for short wave bands. TV waves range from 54 MHz to 890 MHz. The FM (frequency modulated) radio band extends from 88 MHz to 108 MHz. Cellular phones use radio waves to transmit voice communication in the ultrahigh frequency (UHF) band.
Microwaves (short-wavelength radio waves), with frequencies in the gigahertz (GHz) range, are produced by special vacuum tubes (called klystrons, magnetrons and Gunn diodes). Due to their short wavelengths, they are suitable for the radar systems used in aircraft navigation. Radar also provides the basis for the speed guns used to time fast balls, tennisserves, and automobiles. Microwave ovens are an interesting domestic application of these waves. In such ovens, the frequency of the microwaves is selected to match the resonant frequency of water molecules so that energy from the waves is transferred efficiently to the kinetic energy of the molecules. This raises the temperature of any food containing water.
The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation contains a part known as microwaves. These waves have frequency and energy smaller than visible light and wavelength larger than it. What is the principle of a microwave oven and how does it work?
Our objective is to cook food or warm it up. All food items such as fruit, vegetables, meat, cereals, etc., contain water as a constituent. Now, what does it mean when we say that a certain object has become warmer? When the temperature of a body rises, the energy of the random motion of atoms and molecules increases and the molecules travel or vibrate or rotate with higher energies. The frequency of rotation of water molecules is about 2.45 gigahertz (GHz). If water receives microwaves of this frequency, its molecules absorb this radiation, which is equivalent to heating up water. These molecules share this energy with neighbouring food molecules, heating up the food.
One should use porcelain vessels and not metal containers in a microwave oven because of the danger of getting a shock from accumulated electric charges. Metals may also melt from heating. The porcelain container remains unaffected and cool, because its large molecules vibrate and rotate with much smaller frequencies, and thus cannot absorb microwaves. Hence, they do not get heated up. Thus, the basic principle of a microwave oven is to generate microwave radiation of appropriate frequency in the working space of the oven where we keep food. This way energy is not wasted in heating up the vessel. In the conventional heating method, the vessel on the burner gets heated first, and then the food inside gets heated because of transfer of energy from the vessel. In the microwave oven, on the other hand, energy is directly delivered to water molecules which is shared by the entire food.
Infrared waves are produced by hot bodies and molecules. This band lies adjacent to the low-frequency or long-wave length end of the visible spectrum. Infrared waves are sometimes referred to as heat waves. This is because water molecules present in most materials readily absorb infrared waves (many other molecules, for example, CO2, NH3, also absorb infrared waves). After absorption, their thermal motion increases, that is, they heat up and heat their surroundings. Infrared lamps are used in physical therapy. Infrared radiation also plays an important role in maintaining the earth’s warmth or average temperature through the greenhouse effect. Incoming visible light (which passes relatively easily through the atmosphere) is absorbed by the earth’s surface and reradiated as infrared (longer wavelength) radiations. This radiation is trapped by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapour. Infrared detectors are used in Earth satellites, both for military purposes and to observe growth of crops. Electronic devices (for example semiconductor light emitting diodes) also emit infrared and are widely used in the remote switches of household electronic systems such as TV sets, video recorders and hi-fi systems.
It is the most familiar form of electromagnetic waves. It is the part of the spectrum that is detected by the human eye. It runs from about 4 × 1014 Hz to about 7 × 1014 Hz or a wavelength range of about 700 – 400 nm. Visible light emitted or reflected from objects around us provides us information about the world. Our eyes are sensitive to this range of wavelengths. Different animals are sensitive to different range of wavelengths. For example, snakes can detect infrared waves, and the ‘visible’ range of many insects extends well into the utraviolet.
It covers wavelengths ranging from about 4 × 10–7 m (400 nm) down to 6 × 10–10m(0.6 nm). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is produced by special lamps and very hot bodies. The sun is an important source of ultraviolet light. But fortunately, most of it is absorbed in the ozone layer in the atmosphere at an altitude of about 40 – 50 km. UV light in large quantities has harmful effects on humans. Exposure to UV radiation induces the production of more melanin, causing tanning of the skin. UV radiation is absorbed by ordinary glass. Hence, one cannot get tanned or sunburn through glass windows.
Welders wear special glass goggles or face masks with glass windows to protect their eyes from large amount of UV produced by welding arcs. Due to its shorter wavelengths, UV radiations can be focussed into very narrow beams for high precision applications such as LASIK (Laserassisted in situ keratomileusis) eye surgery. UV lamps are used to kill germs in water purifiers.
Ozone layer in the atmosphere plays a protective role, and hence its depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) gas (such as freon) is a matter of international concern.
Beyond the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies the X-ray region. We are familiar with X-rays because of its medical applications. It covers wavelengths from about 10–8 m (10 nm) down to 10–13 m (10–4 nm). One common way to generate X-rays is to bombard a metal target by high energy electrons. X-rays are used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and as a treatment for certain forms of cancer. Because X-rays damage or destroy living tissues and organisms, care must be taken to avoid unnecessary or over exposure.
They lie in the upper frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum and have wavelengths of from about 10–10mto less than 10–14m. This high frequency radiation is produced in nuclear reactions and also emitted by radioactive nuclei. They are used in medicine to destroy cancer cells.