NCERT 11TH STANDARD BIOLOGY – ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues are organised into organs.
Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments.
Anatomically, a plant is made of different kinds of tissues. The plant tissues are broadly classified into meristematic (apical, lateral and intercalary) and permanent (simple and complex). Assimilation of food and its storage, transportation of water, minerals and photosynthates, and mechanical support are the main functions of tissues.
There are three types of tissue systems – epidermal, ground and vascular. The epidermal tissue systems are made of epidermal cells, stomata and then epidermal appendages. The ground tissue system forms the main bulk of the plant. It is divided into three zones – cortex, pericycle and pith.
The vascular tissue system is formed by the xylem and phloem. On the basis of presence of cambium, location of xylem and phloem, the vascular bundles are of different types. The vascular bundles form the conducting tissue and translocate water, minerals and food material.
Monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants show marked variation in their internal structures. They differ in type, number and location of vascular bundles.
The secondary growth occurs in most of the dicotyledonous roots and stems and it increases the girth (diameter) of the organs by the activity of the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. The wood is actually a secondary xylem.
There are different types of wood on the basis of their composition and time of production.